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Tense is the form of verb which shows the time of an action and its degree of completeness.
There are three tense.
1. Present 2 Past 3 Future
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous
Present Indefinite / Simple Present – Any action which takes place or any habitual fact, universal truth or behaviour
Regular Action – I go to college daily
Habbits – He takes tea
Universal truth –The dog barks
Irregular Action – Earthquake comes in Nepal.
Note: Simple Present tense is used to express planned action of near future.
E.g. P M leaves for America next week.
Rules – Simple or Affirmative Sentence
Subj + v1
+ S/es according to subject + Obj.
With he, she it - v1
With I, we, you, they – v1
Negative – Subject + do/does + not + v1
He, she , it – does not + v1
I, we, you they – do not + v1
Interrogative sentence – Do/does + subject + v1
+ obj + ?
Interrogative cum negative sentence – Do/does + subject + not +v1
+ objective + ?
Don’t/doesn’t + subject + v1
+ Objective + ?
Simple Past – An action which took place and that is over is called simple past.
Rules Affirmative Sentence – Subject + v2+ object
Negative – Subject + did not + v1
Interrogative – Did + subject + object + ?
Interrogative cum negative – Did + subject + not +v1
+ Object + ?
Didn’t + subject +v1
Note – Such expressions like last year, last week, yesterday, last Sunday, last month, last weekend. It is time, it
is high time followed by past Indefinite tense (v2)
e.g. – It is high time you leave this place. (x)
It is high time you left this place. (v)
Simple Future – An action which will take place in future.
Rule – Simple sentence
Subject + will/shall + v1
Neg. sentence – Subject + will/shall + not + v1 + objective
Subject + won’t /shan’t + v1
Interrogative – will/shall + subject + v1+ object + ?
Interrogative cum negative – will/shall + subject + not + v1+ object + ?
Won’t /shan’t + subject +v1+ objective + ?
Note – use shall with I and we and others take will
Note: But this order is reversed in modals if there would be any threat, Promise, command determination, compulsion
e.g. I will kill you (Threat)
You shall pay for breaking the glasses (Threat)
We will stand united. (determination)
I will have to finish this work. (compulsion)
Present Continuous – Any action that is going on at the time of speaking or things which are in motion, comes under
Rules – Simple or Affirmative -
Subject + is/am/are + v1
+ ing + objective
Negative – subject + is/am/are + not + v1
+ ing + object
– Subject + is /are/am not + v1
Interrogative – is/am/are + subject + v1
Interrogative cum Negative – Is.am/are + subject + not + v1
+ ing + object + ?
Isn’t/aren’t + subject + v1
+ing + objective + ?
Note – with I – am, with he, she, it – is, with we, you, they – are
Note – Am not has no contraction form. Hence in Question tag aren’t is used
e.g. I am fine, aren’t I
Note – Present Continuous Tense also denoted events that will take place in near future
e.g. I am going to Delhi tomorrow.
Past Continuous – Any action that was going on or in continuation in the past, past continuous tense is used.
Rule – Simple – Subject + was/were + v
+ing + object
Negative – subject + was /were + not + v1
Subject + wasn’t /weren’t +v1
Interrogative – Was/were + subject + v1
Interrogative cum negative – was/were + subject + not + v1
Wasn’t/weren’t + Subject + v1
Use of WAS/WERE
With he/she/it singular/name use – was
With you/we/they/plural use –were
In conditional sentences ‘were’ is used no matter it is used as helping verb or main verb
e.g. – I wish I were a bird
He pretended as if he were the Principal
Future Continuous – Any action that is going on in future comes under future continuous tense
Rules – Subject + will/shall + be +v1
Negative – subject + will/shall + not +be + v1 = ing + object
Subject + won’t /shan’t + be +v1
Interrogative – will/shall + subject + be + v1
Interrogative cum negative – will/shall + subject + not + be +v1
Won’t/Shan’t + subject + be +v1
Present Perfect tense – Any action that has recently completed or taken place comes under Present Perfect tense.
My friend has recently visited Chandigarh
Rule – Simple Sentence – Subject + has/have +V3+ object
Negative – subject + has/have + not + v3+ object
Subject + hasn’t/ haven’t + v3+ object
Interrogative – Has/have + subject + v3+ object + ?
Interrogative cum negative – has /have + subject + not + v3+ object + ?
Hasn’t/ haven’t + subject + v3+ object + ?
Note – If ‘since’ is followed by simple past tense then it is preceded by present perfect tense.
Has/have + v3
e.g. – I have not written to her since she left India
Note: In such sentences the perfect form of any modal can also be used
e.g. He may have grown old since I last saw him
Note – If since comes as a ‘Starter’ then we follow this rules
Since he joined the post he has not taken any bribe.
Past Perfect - Note – Before/after concept Had + v3 before v2 V
2 After had +v3
Note – ‘By the time concept’
By the time v2 Had + v3
By the time v1 will/shall + have + v3
Look at the following sentences give below:
She waited long before her husband returned (x)
She had waited long before her husband returned (v)
We clapped after he performed well.(x)
We clapped after he had performed well (v)
By the time I reached theatre, the show started (x)
By the time I reached theatre, the show had started (v)
By the time I reach the cinema hall the film will already have started.
Past Perfect Tense
Rules Simple – Subject + had + v3 + object
Negative – subject + had + not + v3 + object
Subject + hadn’t + v3+ object
Interrogative - Had + subject + v3 = Object + ?
Interrogative cum negative – Had + subject + not + v3+ object + ?
Hadn’t + subject + v3 + object + ?
Future Perfect – An action that will have been completed in future, comes under future perfect tense.
e.g. He will have read four plays of Shakespeare by the end of his vacation
Rules – Simple Sentences – subject + will/shall + have + v3
Negative Sentence – subject + will/shall + not + have + v3
Subject + won’t /shan’t + have + v3
Interrogative – will/shall + subject + have + v3
+ object + ?
Interrogative cum Negative – will/shall + subject + not + have + v3
Won’t /shan’t + subject + have + v3
Present Perfect Continuous - Any action which started from past and still going on comes under P.P.C. tense.
E.g. I have been working for the two hours.
Simple Sentence – Subject + has/have + been + v1
+ ing + object+ since/for
Negative – Subject + has/have + not + been + v1
+ ing + object + since/for
Subject + hasn’t/haven’t + been +v1
+ ing + object + since/for + ?
Interrogative cum negative – Has/have + subject + not +v1
Hasn’t/Haven’t + subject + been +v1
+ ing + object + since/for?
Past Perfect Continuous – An action that started in the past, continued and finished in past comes under P.P.C.
e.g. I had been teaching you since morning
Simple Sentence – Subect + had + been + v1
+ ing + object + for/since
Negative sentence – Subject + had + not (hadn’t) + been + v1
+ ing + object + since/ for
Interrogative Sentence – Had + subject + not + been + v1
+ ing + object + since/for ?
Hadn’t + subject + been + v1
Future Perfect Continuous – An action that continues up to some future point of time comes under F.P.C.
e.g. I shall have been playing since morning
Rule – Simple or Affirmative –
Subject + will/shall + have + been + v1
Negative – Subject + will/shall + not + have + been + v1
Subject + won’t /shan’t + have + been + v1
Interrogative – will/shall + subject + have + been + v1
+ ing =object + since/for + ?
Interrogative cum negative – will/shall + subject + not + have + been + v1
Won’t/shan’t + subject + have + been +v1
+ ing + object + since/ for +?
Important Points to Remember
Verbs which can’t be used in Continuous and Perfect Continuous tense.
1. Verbs which expresses feelings or emotions like – Arise, believe, care, dislike, expect, feel forget, hate,
hear, know, like, love, remember, recognize, smell, taste, think, want, wish etc.
2. Verbs expressing ownership, possession – have, own, belong, comprise, contain, consist
Rule – 2. Words which are used in Indefinite tense – like – Generally, usually, rarely, normally, never, seldom,
often, always, daily, everyday. Every week, every month, once a week, twice a week ,thrice a week etc.
Continuous Tense words – like – these days, now-a-days, day by day, this week, this year, now, etc.
Perfect tense words – Already
By: Jatin Sharma ProfileResourcesReport error
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