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NARRATION PART-I THEORY
There are 2 ways of reporting a speech: (1) Direct Speech and (2) Indirect Speech. Direct Speech: If the sentence spoken by the speaker is written without any change, the sentence is said to be in a
Example.: Ram says, “I work hard.”
Indirect Speech: If the sentence spoken by the speaker is changed by the narrator following certain rules, it is
called an indirect speech.
Ram says that he works hard. When the reporting verb is in the present or future tense there is no change in the tense of the reported clause.
Direct: Saraswati says, “I like sweets”. Indirect: Saraswati says that she likes sweets. Direct: Hemant says, “I will learn English”. Indirect: Hemant says that he will learn English.
When the direct speech expresses universal truth (fundamental truths of science) sayings/ proverbs/ habitual
action, the tense does not change.
Direct: He said, “The earth moves round the sun”. Indirect: He said that the earth moves round the sun. (not, moved) Direct: They said, “A bad carpenter quarrels with his tools”. Indirect: They said that a bad carpenter quarrels with his tools. (not, quarreled) mperative with had better (advice)
An imperative with you + better / had better expressing advice is turned into Indirect Speech like an ordinary
imperative. For example,
(i) reporting verb is changed into advice + object. (ii) better/ had better is left out. (iii) full infinitive (to + verb) is used instead of bare infinitive. For example, Direct: He said, “You better/ had better see a doctor”. Indirect: He advised me to see a doctor. (better/ had better left out). Direct: The doctor said, “You had better not work hard”. Indirect: The doctors advised me not to work hard. (had better left out). Imperative with might (request)
An imperative with you + might expressing request is turned into Indirect Speech like an ordinary imperative:
(i) reporting verb is changed into request + object.
(ii) might is left out. (iii) full infinitive (to + verb) is used instead of bare infinitive.
Direct: She said, “You might attend the meeting on my behalf”. Indirect: She requested me to attend the meeting on her behalf. Imperative + question tag
A question tag at the end of an imperative is left out, when the sentence is converted into reported speech. For
Direct: “Shut the door, will you”? I said to her. Indirect: I asked/ requested her to shut the door. (question tag left)
An imperative with let + first/ third person expressing permission is turned into Indirect Speech like an ordinary
(i) reporting verb is changed into ask/ request + object. (ii) imperative verb ‘let’ is changed into a full infinitive (to + let + object) For example, Direct: “Let me drive the car”. I told the driver. Indirect: I asked the driver to let me drive the car. Direct: “Let them play in the park”, she told the watchman. Indirect: She asked the watchman to let them play in the park.
Change of Modals
Shall/will → should/would May → might Can → could
Change in time and place
Today → That day tomorrow → the next day yesterday → the previous day/ the day before tonight → that night, last → the previous here → there, this → that these → those ago → before now → then
He said to me, “Are you coming?” He said to me, “when are you coming?” He asked me whether I was coming he asked me when I was coming
? Rules for interrogative sentences to be converted to indirect from direct speech
1. Change ‘said to’ into asked, questioned, inquired or interrogated.
2. ‘Question Mark (?) should be changed into ‘full stop’. 3. The sentence will not be in interrogative form in indirect speech . This means that helping verb is used after the
subject. 4. Tense and pronoun shall be changed according to the rules. 5. if the question can be answered in yes/no, conjunction if/ whether will be used. If the question is of ‘wh family’ no
conjunction will not be used. Examples 1. He said to me, “Do you know me?” He asked me if I knew him. 2. She said to him, “what are you doing now?” She asked him what he was doing then. 3. He said to him, “Did you intend to come with me?” He asked him if he had intended to come with him. 4. He said to her, “Haven’t you seen this movie?” He asked her if she hadn’t seen that movie.
Explanation of Sentence 5 :
? If we use sir/ madam/ your honour or any other word of respect in the Direct Speech, such word should be
replaced by word’ respectfully’ in the Indirect Speech.
? If we use Darling /dear/ my beloved or any other word of affection in the Direct Speech, such word should be
replaced by word ‘lovingly/ affectionately’ in the Indirect Speech.
? If the answer is in ‘yes’ or ‘no’, they must be changed into ‘answered in the affirmative/ answered in the negative
Rules for imperative sentences to be converted to indirect speech from direct speech :
1. Change ‘Said to’ into ordered/ respected/ forbade/ suggested etc
2. Conjunction ‘to’ will replace comma and inverted commas. 3. ‘To’ is followed by ‘V1’. 4. Tense and pronoun change according to rules.
1. She said to me, “Do not come here” She forbade me to come there or
She ordered me not come there 2. He said, “call the first witness how.” He ordered them to call the first witness then 3. She said, “spread the clothes in the sunlight and do not wash anything else.” She ordered him to spread the clothes in the sunlight and not to wash anything else.
Exclamatory sentences: She said, “Alas! I am undone”. She exclaimed with sorrow that she was undone
Rules for changing Exclamatory Sentences from Direct to Indirect Speech
1. Said + Alas ! → exclaimed with sorrow. Said + Hurray ! → exclaimed with joy Said + Fi / Ugh! → exclaimed with despise/ disgust Said + Wow ! → exclaimed with joy. Said + Oh! → exclaimed with surprise/ regret 2. Conjunction ‘that’ will replace comma and inverted commas. 3. Tense and pronoun change according to rules
Examples : 1. She said, “Hurray! We have won this match.” she exclaimed with joy that they had won that match. 2. She said, “How beautiful is the rain!” She exclaimed with joy that the rain was very beautiful. 3. He said, “Bravo ! you have done well.” He applauded him saying that he had done well 4. She said, “What a pleasant surprise!” She exclaimed that it was a pleasant surprise.
He said, “May God bless you.” He prayed that God might bless me
Rules for optative sentences to be converted to indirect speech from direct speech:
1. Change ‘said is’ into ‘wished’ or ‘prayed’
2. Conjunction ‘that’ is used.
3. Tense and pronoun are changed according to rules.
1. She Said, “May, God pardon him.” She prayed that God might pardon him.
2. They said, “Long live the king.” They prayed that the king might live long
By: Jatin Sharma ProfileResourcesReport error
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