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Directions (): Read the following passage and answer the following questions. Some words are highlighted to help you answer some of the questions.
Coffee first arrived in Europe from the Muslim world during the 17th century. It was amazing and it amazed, with an exoticness that charmed Europeans, its stimulating effect and the fact that it made a welcome change from traditional alcoholic beverages. Establishments serving coffee began to open, providing an environment for wonderful social, cultural and political exchange and, within a century, coffee had become part of everyday life.
It is not known exactly when coffee as a drink was discovered. However, we do know that the coffee plant originated in Ethiopia, where coffee beans were consumed either as a paste or as a drink, for their medicinal properties. The shrub was introduced to Yemen around the 14th century and it was then that the first coffee plantations were created. Muslim mystics and pilgrims appreciated coffee for its energising powers, so it travelled to Mecca. From that moment onwards, its success became unstoppable, bowling over Cairo, the Middle East and Constantinople, before arriving in Europe in the early 17th century. As expected, this new drink would come up against a few opponents. Religious clerics were suspicious and asked Pope Clement VIII to taste it. He allegedly declared that it would be a sin if only unbelievers were allowed to enjoy such a delicious drink. Like the pope, the privileged classes were charmed by coffee and quickly embraced its exoticism; ’turqueries’ were particularly fashionable at that time. Intellectuals appreciated it for its ability to help one stay alert and to think clearly. Unlike chocolate, which remained a luxury for the privileged for a long time, coffee, which was less-expensive, was adopted by all levels of society and welcomed into homes during the 19th century. A morning cup of coffee gradually replaced traditional broths or soups and became established as a great classic.
The arrival of coffee was accompanied by a new trend as establishments serving coffee, just like the ones that existed in Constantinople and in Cairo, began to open all over Europe. They soon became meeting places, where people from a variety of backgrounds could get together, discuss and exchange ideas, without becoming intoxicated. In Paris, for example, Le Procope became a meeting place for artists and intellectuals - Montesquieu and Diderot were regular customers. The freedom of speech and the spirit of revolt which sometimes reigned in these establishments did not go unnoticed by the authorities. In London, cafés came to be considered dangerous and, in 1676, Charles II ordered their closure. However, as a result of public pressure, they reopened just a few days later.
What we call the coffee bean is actually more like a seed or pit it grows inside a thin-fleshed fruit not unlike a cherry, which ripens about nine months after the coffee plant flowers. In order to prepare the beans for roasting, they must first be removed from this outer casing using one of several techniques—a "washed," a "pulp natural," or a "natural" method—which may vary based on factors like regional climate, tradition, and the coffee's intended flavor profile. This can be a very tricky part of the life cycle of a coffee bean, as even the highest-quality crop can quickly be ___________ by mold, over-drying, inattentiveness, bad weather, or pest infestation
Select appropriate filler for the blank given in the passage.
None of these.
Going through the given sentence it can be clearly seen that the appropriate filler for the given blank would be ‘ruined’. Hence, the correct answer choice would be option (b)
By: Munesh Kumari ProfileResourcesReport error
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