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Context: The overlap between telcos and the internet companies and the asymmetric regulatory stance.
Reforms and challenge of addressing the inequality
Inequality has been a feature of both models.
Changes in the modes of distribution: In the pre-1991 period, the principal modes of redistribution were taxation and public sector operations.
In the post-1991 period, it has been a combination of taxation, technology, smartphones and the associated direct benefit transfers.
Role of telecom sector in addressing the challenge of achieving growth and inclusion
Mobile as a mean of financial integration: At the same time, the mobile phone has become a means for sophisticated financial integration, as shown by the expanding usage of pre-paid payment instruments and mobile banking.
Making transfers predictable and targeted: The Jan-Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile (JAM) trinity ties the Aadhaar number to an active bank account, making income transfers predictable and targeted.
The new arenas
Net neutrality: Regulation and beyond
By: Shubham Tiwari ProfileResourcesReport error
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